The substance is undetermined — all man-made materials have been ruled out — and only rests on top of the cloth; it does not penetrate the cloth’s linen fibers.
The third mystery is related to the second: Blood from the crucified man penetrated the cloth, as one would expect, but also preceded the impression of the man’s image.
The only evidence that would conclusively authenticate the Shroud against naysayers and claims of forgery is Jesus’ DNA. The Sudarium is a piece of linen cloth, 34 by 21 inches, thought to have been used to cover the head of Jesus immediately after the crucifixion (John 20:7).
It would be matched against the blood — type AB — found on the Shroud and considered rare. Unlike the Shroud, the Sudarium does not display an image.
He elaborates: There are many coincidences between Shroud and Sudarium that lead one to think that both sheets were used for the same person: Jesus Christ.
Both have been used for a bearded man with moustache and long hair who was crucified.
Both contain not only the same rare blood type but also pollen of a kind found only in ancient Israel.
The Shroud and the Sudarium authenticate each other.Other markings are compatible with what could have been a crown of thorns. Like the crucified Jesus in Gospel accounts, the man in the Shroud had no broken bones.On closer examination, you can spot bruises (from beatings? ), and the back of his shoulders (from carrying a heavy cross? The Shroud, the most studied, analyzed, and tested religious relic in the world, has spawned a vast, global field of scientific study, called “sindonology,” but still baffles scientists. For brevity’s sake, I will only scratch the surface (so to speak).Another important matter is that the cadaver that was wrapped by both the Sudarium and the Shroud suffered death by crucifixion, but was afforded a Jewish burial.This is highly unusual because most crucifixion victims were left on the cross for days and the bones were later deposited in common graves.For example, both linens show bloodstains on the head, in approximately the same position, that were formed by sharp objects, similar to what thorns would produce.