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The primary difference between C corporations and S corporations is that C corporations are taxed twice on earned income: : once at the corporate level when the income is earned, and again at the shareholder level when the income is distributed.
Pace also serves as the Director of both the Master of Accounting program and the Master of Taxation program at Weber State. Pace was a full-time tax attorneyat large law firms in Arizona and Utah. Pace graduated from New York University with a Masterof Laws degree in taxation after receiving his Juris Doctor with honors from Washburn University School of Law.
He also received a Master of Taxation degree from Arizona State University and his Bachelor of Science degree from the University of Utah.
He is admitted to practice law before the United States Supreme Court, The United States Tax Court, and is a member of the Utah State Barand State Bar of Arizona (inactive). Pace has written several articles in the area of taxation including in the following journals:, both published by Kendall Hunt Publishing. Pacehas also participated in many continuing education programs and academic conferences.
He currentlylives in Morgan, Utah, with his wife and three children and enjoys reading and playingbasketball.
The Internal Revenue Code uses four tests to make this distinction: To prevent gamesmanship among related parties, Congress has added another layer of rules that must be analyzed to determine if a distribution is a redemption.
These attribution rules provide that shares owned by a shareholder’s parents, children, and grandchildren (but not siblings) are considered to be owned by the shareholder. Similarly, shares held by corporations, trusts, and partnerships are deemed to be owned by their shareholders beneficiaries, and partners, and vice versa. As a result, shares held by these family members and entities are considered to be owned by the shareholder for purposes of determining whether the distribution qualifies as a redemption.
To the extent that a distribution is made from the corporation’s earnings and profits, it is taxed to the shareholder as a dividend. The portion of the distribution that is not considered a dividend is applied first to reduce the shareholder’s basis in the corporation’s stock. Any remaining portion is treated as gain from the sale or exchange of property (capital gain). Important Note: If a shareholder assumes a liability or takes property subject to a liability, the amount of the distribution is reduced by the amount of the liability. Special rules also apply at the corporate level. Special rules apply to distributions to a shareholder in exchange for the shareholder’s stock (redemptions).
Instead of being treated as dividends, redemptions are treated as a sale or exchange of the stock by the shareholder. The distinction can be important when the long-term capital gains rates (which apply to redemptions) are higher than the tax rates on dividends.
94–455, § 205(c)(1)(B), substituted “1252(a), or 1254(a)” for “or 1252(a)”.